What the Traffic Shaper can do for a Network¶
The basic idea of traffic shaping is raising and lowering the priorities of packets or keeping them under a certain speed. This concept seems simple, however, the number of ways in which this concept can be applied is vast. These are but a few common examples that have proven popular with users of pfSense software.
Keep Browsing Smooth¶
Asymmetric links, where the download speed differs from the upload speed, are commonplace, especially with DSL. Some links are so out of balance that the maximum download speed is almost unattainable because it is difficult for a firewall to send out enough ACK (acknowledgement) packets to keep traffic flowing. ACK packets are transmitted back to the sender by the receiving host to indicate that data was successfully received, and to signal that it is OK to send more. If the sender does not receive ACKs in a timely manner, congestion control mechanisms in TCP will kick in and slow down the connection.
This type of situation is common: When uploading a file over a link that has asymmetric throughput capability, browsing and downloading slows to a crawl or stalls. This happens because the uploading portion of the circuit is full from the file upload and there is little room to send ACK packets which allow downloads keep flowing. By using the shaper to prioritize ACK packets, the firewall can enable faster, more stable download speeds on asymmetric links.
This is not as important on symmetric links where the upload and download speed are the same, but may still be desirable if the available outgoing bandwidth is heavily utilized.
Keep VoIP Calls Clear¶
If Voice over IP calls use the same circuit as data, then uploads and downloads may degrade call quality. pfSense software can prioritize the call traffic above other protocols, and ensure that the calls make it through clearly without breaking up, even while streaming hi-def video from Netflix at the same time. Instead of the call breaking up, the shaper reduces speed of the other transfers to leave room for the calls.
Reduce Gaming Lag¶
The shaper also has options to give priority to the traffic associated with network gaming. Similar to prioritizing VoIP calls, the effect is that even if users on the network are downloading while playing, the response time of the game should still be nearly as fast as if the rest of the connection were idle.
Keep P2P Applications In Check¶
By lowering the priority of traffic associated with known peer-to-peer ports, administrators can rest easier knowing that even if those programs are in use, they won’t hinder other traffic on the network. Due to its lower priority, other protocols will be favored over P2P traffic, which will be limited when any other services need the bandwidth.
Enforce Bandwidth Limits¶
Limiters can apply a bandwidth limit to a group of devices, such as all traffic on an interface, or masking on limiters can apply them on a per-IP address or per-network basis. This way the firewall can ensure that no one person can consume all available bandwidth.